Woollen-Textile Mills and Population Growth

Demographic Study 1851-1881

THIS STUDY by Joe Brown BA(Hons) analyses the growth and the changes in population that occurred between 1850 and 1880 in Galashiels, a town in the Scottish Borders. 

Dorothy Wordsworth in her Journal of a Tour made in Scotland describes Galashiels in 1803 as a village ‘pleasantly situated on the banks of the stream; a pretty place it once has been, but a manufactory is established there; and a townish bustle and ugly stone houses are fast taking the place of the brown-roofed thatched cottages, of which a great number yet remain, partly overshadowed by trees.(1)   

The manufactory she observed was the domestic workshops with their spinning wheels and handlooms: the ‘seedbed’ of a local industry that would expand to over twenty woollen-textile and yarn spinning mills by the last half of the nineteenth century.  Although there was undoubted local flair for spinning yarn and weaving cloth, it was the enterprise of entrepreneurs prepared to use the new technologies that transformed Galashiels into a thriving urban town, producing nearly one-fifth of the output of the Scottish woollen industry by 1863(2) earning recognition for the town’s fine worsteds and tweeds. 

It was all made possible by the inventions of Hargreaves spinning jenny and Crompton’s mule.  Initially these inventions were suited for the production of fine but strong thread for the weaving of cotton on Cartwright’s powerlooms and were the means that helped the cotton industry to expand with such spectacular results.  However, the success of the woollen-textile industry in Galashiels demonstrates that when these new developments became adapted for handling softer wool fibres, their impact was just as dramatic. 

Woollen Textile Mills

Galashiels nestles in a valley with the Rivers Tweed and the Ettrick, the town divided by the Gala Water which is the historic boundary between Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire, the town partly lying in both counties.  Uniquely, local born population were listed in the Census as either born ‘Galashiels, Roxburgh’ or ‘Galashiels, Selkirk’ until changed in 1891 when the Boundary Commission placed the town entirely in Selkirkshire.  With waterpower so readily available and the district producing an ample supply of wool, local enterprise was not lacking and  woollen-textile mills sprung into being on the banks of the River Tweed and beside the lades of the Gala Water almost as fast as the latest inventions became adapted for the carding, spinning and weaving of wool fibres.

Four woollen-textile mills were erected just prior to 1800: Wilderbank (formerly Wilderhaugh Burn), Ladhope and Mid Mill 1793c and also Botany Mill (originally Weirhaugh) 1797.  A further nine mills were established by 1851 with Waulkhillhead 1802, Deanbank 1804, Nethermill and Rosebank 1805, Huddersfield and Galabank 1818, Gala Mill 1826, Abbots 1841 and Buckholmside 1846.  Four more were started by the time the Census of 1861 had been taken: Comelybank and Tweed Mills 1852, Victoria 1853 and Netherdale 1857; by Census 1871 two others were in operation: Waukrigg (formerly Tweed Place) and Wheatlands 1866.   When Langhaugh Mill started in 1875 and there were 20 mills in production by Census 1881.  Later, Bristol Spinning in 1885 and Waverley Mill in 1886 were built.

In addition some 16 smaller manufacturing factories were producing woollen texiles; many processing spun yarn by using hand-looms to produce finished cloth

Population and inward Migration

With this rate of enterprise it is clear why Galashiels expanded so rapidly as an urban centre, its population rising from 5919 to 15330 during the thirty years from 1851 to 1881, showing an increase of 159 per cent.  It was a rate of growth spurred on by employment opportunities attracting incomers to the town seeking to better themselves.   

Table 1 shows the progress of population expansion that occurred through inwards migration and natural growth, increasing by 60 per cent in the decade to 1871 when 19 woollen-textile mills were providing employment. By 1881 there was a further near-50 per cent increase when the town had 20 mills. This pattern of growth was well in excess of the average population growth of 10 per cent to 11 per cent occurring elsewhere in Scotland during this period.  However, after further population increase in the decennial period to 1891 the town then experienced outwards migration and a drop of over 20 per cent was recorded when the Census of 1901 was taken.  In Galashiels (and for Britain, too) it marked the beginning of a long period of steady decline for the textile-woollen industry as it faced greater competition from overseas.

More than half the population increase in Galashiels was due to short distance movement of people from the rural areas of the counties of Selkirk and Roxburgh and by others crossing over into the town from the adjacent counties of Peebles, Midlothian and Dumfries.  In Table 2, the 1851 Census shows 35.5 per cent born in the town, a quarter of the population born in other parts of Selkirkshire and Roxburghshire whilst another quarter had migrated from the neighbouring counties.  In 1881 that position had changed to 40 per cent born in the town, 23 per cent within the two counties and just over 20 per cent migrating from neighbouring counties. 

Gulvin suggests this pattern indicates they were mainly agricultural workers moving into their nearest urban centre to better themselves by working in the new woollen factories and textile workers migrating from woollen districts elsewhere in Scotland.(3)   Analysis of those working in the town’s woollen-textile mills in 1881 confirm this with just over two-thirds being migrants, 2514 born outside of Galashiels and only 1153 native-born.  Irish-born migrants accounted for 3.4 per cent and 2.6 per cent respectively, well below the average for Scotland of 7.2 per cent and 5.9 per cent.


Table 1.  

Galashiels Population 1851-1891 

Relative to the number of Woollen-Textile Mills in operation. 

Percentage growth compared with Scotland.

Decennial PeriodPopulationGalashiels% Growth Weaving/Spinning MillsScotland% Growth 
1851 5919 13 
187110312+60.319 +9.7
190113615 -21.6 +7.7


Table 2.     

Galashiels Population 1851 and 1881 

Place of Birth.

Town 209235.3604039.4
Local Counties*151125.5355523.2
Bordering Counties**151125.5333121.7
Rest of Scotland4487.614629.5
Wales 03
Ireland 2033.43912.6
Not known270.5130.1
 (5919) (15330) 

*Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire  **Peebles, Midlothian, Dumfries 

Population Profile

The change in the population profile during the thirty years of urban expansion is shown in Figure 1.  The broad base of 1881 not only reflects the increase in population but indicates a community with a large proportion of children up to 14 years age; this age-group having more males (2921) than females (2786) and in contrast to the rest of population.  In both decennial periods analysis show more females than men in the population profile: 1851 – males 49.6 per cent, females 50.4 per cent; 1881 – males 47.3 per cent, females 52.7 per cent.  

As the town grew there was a progressive increase in local birth-rate, with about half the incomers in the child-bearing age-group 18-45.  Figure 2 provides an analysis of the children nine-years-and-under born in the decennial period 1871-81: local births in 1871 were 203 (64 per cent) and elsewhere 114 (36 per cent) but this changed significantly by 1880 with 438 local births (87 per cent) and only 67 (13 per cent) born elsewhere.  This could be seen as the beginning of the trend where natural growth rather than in-migration would supplement labour needs.(4)

Figure 1

Population Profile 1

Figure 2



There were 1191 households in 1851 and 3184 by 1881; this increase of 167 per cent measured against a population growth of 159 per cent.  The mean average household size falling from 4.97 to 4.8 over the thirty years; as an urban centre in Roxburghshire this correlates with the suggested figure of 4.5 for the county average determined by a Sample Study of the 1881 Census.(5)   

It seems evident from Table 3 that the emerging industrial burgh was a society centred on the nuclear family as 42.5 per cent households in 1881 were married couples with children. The data shows that in multiple households (having more than the immediate family in residence) the co-residential group had also changed over the thirty years.  Notably, Table 3 indicates there were fewer live-in servants in 1881 and in Table 4 under one per cent of the population were in domestic work compared with 2.6 per cent in 1851.  There was also a tendency in 1881 for more kin to be part of the co-residential group and Table 4 shows this was due to an increase in the number of ‘in-laws’ rather than blood relatives.   It may be argued this indicates a strengthening of kinship ties through closer links with the extended family; on the other hand it could be argued this phenomena was in some measure influenced by a shortage of dwelling houses due to the population expanding at such a rate. 

In 1851 some 5.9 per cent of the Galashiels population in the Census returns were shown as lodgers or boarder, the number falling to 5 per cent in 1881 with twice as many boarders as lodgers (see Table 4); analysis indicates they were mostly incomers to the town and half employed in the woollen-textile mills.   The guidance given to Census Enumerators that ‘boarders ate at the same table as the household’ but ‘lodgers provided for themselves’, must have presented enumerators standing on the doorstep with a considerable problem on how to list these individuals as part of a household.  On that basis, Table 4 shows the number of boarders compared to lodgers in 1851 and 1881. 

Table 3

Types of Household in Galashiels.

Single persons433.61414.6
Married couples, no children695.81855.8
One parent with children1089.02628.2
Married couples with children43436.4135342.5
Households with resident relatives*20417.156017.6
Households with resident boarders/lodgers*15913.345314.2
Households with resident servants*998.31534.8
Complex households756.3752.3
Total number of households119199.83182100.0

In addition, in 1881 there were two households forming the Combination Poorhouse 
with 22 and 26 occupants. 

 *See Table 4


Table 4         

Number of Boarders, Lodgers, Servants and Kin living in Households. 

(Percentage of total population.)

  1851    1881  
 Total%mf Total % m f
Boarders3   4873.2289198
Lodgers 3495.925990 2721.8 19181
Servants  1542.69145 1200.84116
Kin : Blood relations1913.281110 4863.2167319
Kin : in-laws721.2 4131 2091.492117


Population and employment

Table 5        

In 1851, 2645 (44.7 per cent) of the Galashiels population were listed as having employed occupations, a ratio of 70 males to 30 females (1857 males, 788 females); the youngest employed was aged six (a message boy) and the oldest a widow aged 84 (lodginghouse keeper).  Without ‘an employed occupation’ were 3274 (55.3 per cent) and included 1988 under-14 years of age and 805 wives.  The social spectrum ranged from 15 proprietors of land/houses and 20 annuitants (including six gentlewomen) to 52 paupers.

Thirty years later the proportion employed or without a ‘stated occupation’ had changed very little even though the population had increased by almost 160 per cent.  The significant change, however, was in the number of females in the workplace.  With employed occupations were 44.1 per cent (6768), a ratio of 63 males to 37 females (4265 males, 2503 females); 96 workers were under-14 with 62 in the woollen-textile mills, including a girl aged 11.  ‘Without stated occupations’ were 8562 (55.9 per cent), including 5293 under-14s and 2090 wives.  In contrast to 27 with independent means there were 35 inmates in the Combination Poorhouse which was established under the provisions of the Poor Law (Scotland) Amendment Act 1845 to serve the parishes of Galashiels, Bowden, Melrose, Selkirk, and Yarrow.  The inmates consisted of 23 males aged from 84 to an infant under 1 year; 12 females aged from 95 to 5 years of age.

Table 5 shows an analysis of the working population not employed in textiles, indicating both labouring and domestic work as major categories of employment in both decennial periods.  In 1851, 92 labourers worked in agriculture whilst the other labouring jobs were building 24, railways 18 and road maintenance 12. However in 1881, just 24 labourers were in agricultural work but 73 in building; whilst only one railway labourer was listed there were another 63 railway employees designated as porters, engine cleaners, surfacemen, clerks, signalmen and shunters.  Domestic work entailed being part of a household in 1851 (see Table 4).  In 1881 there were 120 ‘live-in’ servants (including 4 males: hostler, boots, post boy and a domestic general) but a major change showed that the remaining 211 worked as domestic generals in posts within the wider community.

Occupations, other than Woollen-Textile Workers.

Labourers *179**357
Domestic Servants154331
Joiners/Carpenters     49156
Plumbers   224
Ministers of Religion711
In Apprenticeship110133

*Includes 93 Agricultural labourers.    **Includes 25 Agricultural labourers.

The rest of the data in Table 5 is demographic evidence that the workforce in Galashiels was changing as the town grew in size to cope with an expanding population.  It shows a considerable increase over the thirty years in the number employed by retail outlets: grocers, bakers, butchers, tailors and dressmakers; reflecting the prosperity of the town and growth of consumer spending.  The number of boot/shoemakers had not changed to the same extent; the simplistic view might be tken that boots and shoes were a longer-lasting commodity unlike tailoring or dressmaking reacting to fashion as it changed in the late 1880s. More straight forward and to be expected was the growth in the number of skilled artisans – masons, joiners and carpenters – increasing threefold by 1881 to meet the structural demands of an expanding urban town.  

Table 5 also provides evidence of the changes that occurred in the structure of the workforce through implentation of local government legislation.  The Public Health (Scotland) Act 1867 gave local authorities the power to provide fresh water supplies and improve sanitation and it can be seen that the number of plumbers increased from 2 in 1851 to 24 by 1881 (migrants providing 17 of them.)  Health and vaccination, also covered by the Act, required more doctors and chemists in Galashiels, the number rising from 3 to 14 by 1881.  The level of law and order for a town with a rapidly increasing population is reflected by 5 policemen in 1851 but rising to 12 in 1881; notably, all were migrants.  

The Education Act of 1872 made education compulsory for five to thirteen year olds and it can be seen in Table 5 this resulted in a three-fold increase in the number of scholars and a four-fold rise in the number of teachers.  In 1881 only 11 of the 42 teachers were born in Galashiels and 15 designated as ‘Teacher Pupil’ (aged from 13 to 31 years).  An analysis of scholars in 1851 showed 21 were ‘four years or under’ and 34 were ‘14 years or older’; in 1881, 40 were ‘four years or under’ and there were 75 ‘14 years or older’.  The school-leaving age of 13 was not changed until the 1883 Act raised it to 14, so it is noteworthy that 75 scholars (41 boys and 34 girls) were still at school in 1881 despite being over the age of 13.  Equally noteworthy is the fact that 47 of the 75 were from migrant families, and it may be argued that the enterprising spirit of their parents in migrating to improve their well-being was still in evidence by allowing their children to continue their education beyond the statutory school-leaving age.

Woollen workers

It can be reaily identified from the data in the 1851 and 1881 Censuses that the dynamics for the growth and prosperity of Galashiels derived from its woollen-textile cloth industry, demonstrated by the expansion in the number of mills and the increasing number of people they employed.  In 1851 there were 1364 woollen-textile workers accounting for 51.5 per cent of those employed in the town. The number increasing by 170 per cent in 1881 when 3672 millworkers were now 54.4 per cent of the working population.  

The Census Enumerators’ Returns for 1881 show 73 per cent of those working in the Galashiels woollen industry had specified occupations.  However, 27 per cent were shown as ‘millworker’, and an assumption is made that their employment was as assistants or general labourers in the various process of weaving, spinning, dyeing or scouring.  The 995 listed as ‘millworker’ consisted of 617 males which included 23 boys aged 13 and also 10 over 65 years (oldest 81); also, 378 females included 9 girls of 13 years and 2 women over 65 (oldest 76).  It has to be borne in mind that the school-leaving age was not raised to 14 until 1883.   

There were two significant changes in the mill workforce during the thirty year period.  First, nearly half employed in 1881 were women and girls, 47 per cent compared with just 28.9 per cent in 1851.  They had quickly adapted to operating the powerloom and by 1881 over 70 per cent of the powerloom weavers were female and their cheaper weekly pay rate of 15s (75p) compared with males 22s (110p)(6)made their employment an attractive proposition for the millowners.

The second change during the thirty years was in the weaving process and this was revolutionary: the powerloom replaced the handloom and virtually swept away a craft that had its origins in the domestic workshop.   There were 542 handloom weavers (534 males, 8 females) and 7 powerloom weavers (4 males, 3 females) listed in 1851.  These figures provide evidence of the scale of the Galashiels woollen-textile trade in 1851 and indicate the likely number of handlooms in operation.

It is argued that when the spinning jenny was invented it required more handlooms to process the greatly increased volume of spun yarn they produced.  This was the situation that occurred in Galashiels after 1791 when George Mercer installed his first spinning jenny and later in 1797 when the town had 18 jennies spinning 36 spindles at a time(7) followed in 1814 by the installation of spinning mules that could operate with 400 spindles(8).  Records show 175 handlooms in Galashiels in 1831 but by 1845-46 that number had greatly increased to 563(9), arguably to cope with the output of the spinning jennies and mules.   However, the 1851 Census indicates the number of handlooms fell to 542 (assuming the number of handloom weavers equals the number of actual handlooms), their decline coinciding with the appearance of the 7 powerlooms weavers in that bicennial Census. 

Data in 1881 indicates 1088 powerloom weavers (784 females, 304 males) employed in the town’s woollen-textile mills.  Powerlooms now the source of weaving output, their greatly increased production of woven cloth necessitated the gearing-up in the number of people employed in wool preparation, carding, spinning and in the finishing processes.  The extent of this gearing-up can be assessed from the various occupations recorded in 1851 when there were 549 weavers to 815 other textile workers (ratio: 1 to 1.48) and in 1881 this was 1088 weavers to 2584 others (1 to 2.38).  The number of spinning and yarn workers doubled from 251 (1851) to 504 (1881) but in the finishing departments employees increased ten-fold from 55 (1851) to 542 (1881). 

In 1851 there were 32 individuals listed as manufacturers of woollens and also another three manufacturers producing yarn, stockings and cotton; 25 of them were born in Galashiels.  In 1881 the number had increased to 45 woollen manufacturers and of these 28 were born locally; 2 aged 72 and 80 were shown as ‘retired’ and 2 aged 17 and 18 were apprentice/learners.  Three of the individual manufacturers in the 1851 Census were still listed in 1881 with the names of Brown, Clapperton, Cochrane, Dickson, Paterson, Roberts and Sanderson in evidence as mill-owning families in both bicennial periods.  

The Galashiels stocking and shawl industry in 1851 had 48 knitters (32 female, 16 male).  In 1881 there was only  a small element left with four knitters (three female, one male) and the town also retained a remnant of its once-great cottage industry of handloom weaving with three male weavers listed. 

However, it was the woollen textile cloth trade that dominated the town in 1881, as seen in Table 6.  Out of the 3184 households there were 2036 (64 per cent) with one or more millworkers.  A ‘cluster’ of 619 households with 4 or 5 occupants accommodated 1068 millworkers, 29 per cent of the town’s mill workforce.   There was a distinct pattern of sons and daughters following their fathers into the mills.  A household of nine had eight in the woollen trade: head (male) aged 47, millworker; son 30 pressman (finishing process); son 19 piecer (spinning); three daughters aged 28, 26 and 19 all darners (finishing); two daughters 24 and 22 both powerloom weavers.   In a household of 15 there were seven millworkers: head 57, son 16, daughters 30, 28, 25, 23 and grandson 13.

 Table 6 Galashiels 1881:
Households with Woollen-Textile Workers
 HouseholdTotalHouseholds with  
 SizeHouseholdsWoollen WorkersHouseholds with Woollen-Textile Workers  
 1141  7171        
 9103762118171072 1 
 15221 1  
  3182*2036 (64%)    

Note:  *Two households forming the Combination Poorhouse not included.

The Railways

 Co-partners in the success of the woollen-textile mills were the railways.  A Galashiels rail link to Edinburgh was established in 1849 and later a second line via Peebles to the Scottish capital opened in 1866; local railway staff in 1851 numbered 28 (all males) but thirty years later had increased to 64 (63m, 1f telegraphist).  Without doubt the woollen-textile industry and the railway system were mutually beneficial in their evolutionary years.  The railways instantly reduced the price of coal and the cost of bringing raw wool into the town, but it was their valuable rail network that enabled Galashiels tweeds and worsteds to speedily reach their national and world-wide markets, the annual value of their woollen goods rising from around £1000 in 1790 to nearly £1.25 million by 1890.(10)


The pattern of population growth in Galashiels and the development of the town’s woollen-textile industry is an excellent example of the relationship between urbanization and industrialization in the mid-nineteenth century.  This study provides evidence of a classic pattern of inwards migration with some 60 per cent of the population moving into an urban centre from the rural areas of the nearby counties, attracted by job opportunities in a growing town with an expanding woollen-textile industry. The study is based on the bicennial reports about the population of Galashiels in the Census Enumerators’ Returns for 1851 and 1881, and their data facilitated the statistical analysis of households and families and made possible an examination of the types of employment that were available over the thirty years.  The classification of occupations are not as definitive as the historian would like, but nevertheless provide valuable evidence of the change that took place in Galashiels as it developed in response to the expansion of its woollen textile industry.  Evidence in this study indicates:  Woollen-textile occupations show the build up of handloom weaving in Galashiels resulting from the introduction of the mechanised spinning jennies and mules.Occupations also show the dominance of the powerlooms when they were introduced and the impact they had on the structure of employment elsewhere within the mills.Occupations provided evidence of the types of employment and skills that developed in Galashiels in response to local prosperity and through social and environmental changes imposed by legislation. Mechanization of spinning and weaving were processes suited to the skills of women and girls and they became increasingly a larger part of the textile mill workforce, which was encouraged by the millowners because of their lower pay-rates. Above all, this study shows that in the nineteenth century it was the woollen-textile mills that gave Galashiels its distinct identity as a town renowned for its quality tweeds and worsteds. 

Sources and MethodologyMicrosoft Access programme was used to establish and analyse a computer database from data extracted from the Census Enumerators’ Returns for the town of Galashiels, providing 5,919 records for 1851 and 15,300 for 1881.  Data for each person was entered to provide fields for analysis: Autonumber (position within the database), unique personal reference number, address, household size, surname, forenames, status, sex, age, occupation, birthplace Galashiels or if born elsewhere.  There was also a field to record the age of infants under a year old.  The records for 1851 were ‘typed’ into the database by optical character recognition (OCR) reading from a published transcription(11) of the Enumerators’ Returns; the accuracy of the transcription data verified with the original census records on a basis of 1:150.  The 1881 records were input from data supplied by Economic and Social Data Service database (ESDS)/UK Archive.(12)Using OCR had mixed benefits.  The system had difficulty in reading certain characters in the typed transcription copy mainly because of the typeface design used.  It was necessary for each page to be carefully checked for literal accuracy before the records could be entered into the databank as invariably corrections were needed.  However, the errors could be anticipated as they followed a pattern, the same letters and figures failing to be read correctly.  Transcription data typed in a sans-serif typeface would have greatly improved the reliability of OCR.  


To record my appreciation to Southall, H.R., et al., and the Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS/UK Archive) for allowing me to download the Scottish Parish Population Statistics for 1881 from the Great Britain Historical Database: Census Data: Parish-level Population Statistics, 1801-1951 [computer file]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], August 2004. SN4560.To acknowledge and compliment the Borders Family History Society for producing and making available their disk Hall’s History of Galashiels, transcribed, annotated and indexed by Bill and Jean Marshall-Roberts [Robert Hall, The History of Galashiels, (Walker, Galashiels, 1898)].

Notes1.  http://www.gazetteerofscotland.org.uk/ Journal of a Tour 
     made in Scotland (1803) 2nd edn, 1896, 1066 
2.  Clifford Gulvin, The Tweedmakers, A History of the
     Scottish Fancy Woollen Industry 1600-1914 (Newton 
     Abbot, 1973), 86.3.  Clifford Gulvin, The Tweedmakers, 104-5.4.  M. FlinnScottish Population History from the 17th
   century to the 1930s (Cambridge, 1977), 311.5.  Kevin Schurer and Matthew Woollard, National Sample 
     from the 1881 Census of Great Britain, 5% Random 
     Sample, Working Document Version 1.1 (University of  
     Essex, 2002), 73 (Table 4.1).6.  Clifford Gulvin, The Tweedmakers, 173 (Table 14).7.  Robert Hall, The History of Galashiels (Galashiels,
     1898), 307.8.  Robert Hall, The History of Galashiels (Galashiels,
     1898), 316.9.  Clifford Gulvin, The Tweedmakers, 86 (Table 3).10. http://www.electricscotland.com/history/peebles/chap22.htm
11. Graham Maxwell Ancestry Research Services, Galashiels 
      Parish, Selkirkshire: Melrose Parish, Roxburghshire.
12. Southall, H.R. et al., Great Britain Historical
      Database: Census Data: Parish-level Population 
      Statistics, 1801-1951 [computer file]. Colchester,
      Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor], August 2004.

Joe Brown born 1921; began newspaper career 1936 with Peeblesshire Advertiser published by the Neidpath Press, Peebles; served with the local Territorial Battalion 8th Royal Scots (May 1939-43) and 7th/9th (Highlanders) Battalion The Royal Scots (1943-46). Post-War: executive posts with The Scotsman Publications, Coventry Newspapers and Birmingham Post & Mail; CBE for services to British Newspapers.  Honorary Callant of the Royal Burgh of Peebles Callants’ Club.  Warden of Neidpath 1983. BA(Hons). Publications: History of Peebles: 1850-1990 (J. L. Brownand I. C. Lawson) Mainstream 1990.  Websites: www.lawlerbrown.com  [Second World War Memoirs] www.mabelbrown.co.ukwww.john-lowrie.comwww.neidpathpress.comwww.historyofpeebles.com